Alanna has a great list of introductory readings on development. I think its a bit aid-heavy, but then it is aimed at aid-workers.
Still, there is a lot more to development than foreign assistance. There is also a lot more to foreign assistance than aid. CGD's commitment to development index has 7 components of which aid is just one: aid, trade, investment, migration, environment, security, and technology. Birdsall, Rodrik and Subramanian expand on these issues in Foreign Affairs.
But not meaning to be purely critical, I'm working on putting together my own very short list.
Here is a work-in-progress from some friends.